Charitable Remainder Trusts
Goal: Diversify holdings, avoid capital gains
Benefit: Potential increased income and tax benefits
A Charitable Remainder Trust is established for the life of the donor
(also trustor or grantor) and/or for the life of any beneficiary(-ies)
and is irrevocable. While there are certain changes that may be made,
once the trust is established, it cannot be revoked. If it is desired,
the income period of the trust can be established for a specified period
of time not to exceed twenty years. The twenty-year maximum does not apply
if the trust life is based on the life expectancy of the income beneficiary(-ies).
Because the income is paid to one or more parties and, at the end of
the trust's life, the principal and any undistributed interest is paid
to a different party, a charitable remainder trust is called a split interest
trust. The income portion of the trust may be either a unitrust income
or an annuity income.
With a unitrust, the assets of the trust are revalued annually. The
percentage rate established when the trust agreement was signed determines multiplied times the value of the trust each year determines that year's annual payout. The payout amount would increase
if the value of the trust assets increased. If the value of the principal
in the unitrust declined, the amount of the interest portion of the unitrust
would decline as well.
The income from an annuity trust is calculated at the time the trust is established using the interest rate and the initial market value of the assets in the trust. The trust is not revalued in the future. If the assets of the trust go up or drop in value,
the income portion does not change. Principal may be used if the income is not sufficient to pay the required annual payment. The amount of income does not change in the future unless the principal is exhausted.
A charitable remainder trust is an attractive planning tool for the disposal
of highly appreciated assets. While the assets revert to the charity rather
than the heirs of the estate, the use of an irrevocable life insurance
trust in conjunction with a charitable remainder trust could replace the
asset's value for the heirs. Another option is to provide income to the heirs for a term of years after the initial income beneficiaries have died. There are potential gift tax issues in this option and lengthening the life of the CRT will generally reduce the charitable tax deduction.
Income Charitable Remainder Trust
This variation of a unitrust provides
that either the specified fixed percentage of the trust assets or the net income
of the trust is distributed to the beneficiary, whichever is less. This type of
trust is often used to handle real estate as there is no fixed distribution requirement,
giving the trustee time to arrange an orderly sale of the property. A net income
charitable remainder unitrust can be an excellent way to donate appreciated property
and turn it into an income stream as well as acquire tax benefits.
A donor may also add a 'makeup provision" to the trust. This allows
a trust to distribute more than the fixed percentage of the assets in
years where the trust's income exceeded the fixed percentage. In this
manner, previous year's shortages, when the trust was not able to earn
the fixed percentage payment, may be made up.
Flip Charitable Remainder Unitrust
A flip unitrust blends two types of trusts for greater flexibility,
both for the donor and the eventual remainderman. The trust functions
as a net income trust until a specified event occurs. On January 1st following
the specified event, the net income trust flips and becomes a standard
unitrust. This type of trust functions well for illiquid assets such as
real estate or assets that are hard to value. Click here for more information
on flip unitrusts.
Please click here for an example of a charitable remainder trust and click here to see a graphic example of the structure of a charitable remainder trust
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